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Pandemic response
COVID-19 is impacting communities around the world. PATH and our partners are responding.


  1. Countries have to determine how to make the best use of limited resources. PATH uses health economics to inform countries' decisions about vaccines.
    Published: June 2018
    Type: Article
  2. A chance finding from 20 years ago may have the potential to transform vaccinology.
    Published: August 2017
    Type: Article
  3. Some stories get more comments and likes on social media than others. Here are 5 of our favorites.
    Published: July 2017
    Type: Article
  4. This report describes perspectives and viewpoints of a broad spectrum of key stakeholders in the maternal immunization arena in Malawi. It documents information and lessons learned around maternal immunization including the vaccine policy decision-making process, potential programmatic implications of vaccine delivery for pregnant women, and perceptions and concerns about influenza and influenza vaccine among community members and health workers.
    Published: October 2016
    Type: Resource Page
  5. Getting our new, soft NIFTY cup delivered to preemies in Malawi and Tanzania who can't breastfeed.
    Published: September 2016
    Type: Article
  6. Kenya is working to ensure children are exclusively breastfed. Next up: improving infant and young child feeding practices.
    Published: August 2016
    Type: Article
  7. In Malawi, it took a community of dedicated advocates "making some noise" to get a list of lifesaving medicines approved.
    Published: June 2015
    Type: Article
  8. Introduction: HIV self-testing (HIVST) has the potential to increase uptake of HIV testing among untested populations in subSaharan Africa and is on the brink of scale-up. However, it is unclear to what extent HIVST would be supported by stakeholders, what policy frameworks are in place and how variations between contexts might influence country-preparedness for scale-up. This qualitative study assessed the perceptions of HIVST among stakeholders in three sub-Saharan countries.Methods: Fifty-four key informant interviews were conducted in Kenya (n16), Malawi (n26) and South Africa (n12) with government policy makers, academics, activists, donors, procurement specialists, laboratory practitioners and health providers. A thematic analysis was conducted in each country and a common coding framework allowed for inter-country analysis to identify common and divergent themes across contexts.Results: Respondents welcomed the idea of an accurate, easy-to-use, rapid HIV self-test which could increase testing across all populations. High-risk groups, such as men, Men who have sex with men (MSM), couples and young people in particular, could be targeted through a range of health facility and community-based distribution points. HIVST is already endorsed in Kenya, and political support for scale-up exists in South Africa and Malawi. However, several caveats remain. Further research, policy and ensuing guidelines should consider how to regulate, market and distribute HIVST, ensure quality assurance of tests and human rights, and critically, link testing to appropriate support and treatment services. Low literacy levels in some target groups would also need context-specific consideration before scale up. World Health Organization (WHO) policy and regulatory frameworks are needed to guide the process in those areas which are new or specific to self-testing.Conclusions: Stakeholders in three HIV endemic sub-Saharan countries felt that HIVST will be an important complement to existing community and facility-based testing approaches if accompanied by the same essential components of any HIV testing service, including access to accurate information and linkages to care. While there is an increasingly positive global policy environment regarding HIVST, several implementation and social challenges limit scale-up. There is a need for further research to provide contextual and operational evidence that addresses concerns and contributes to normative WHO guidance.
    Published: March 2015
    Type: Resource Page
  9. HIV self-testing (HIVST) is increasingly being sought and offered globally, yet there is limited information about the test features that will be required for an HIV self-test to be easy to use, acceptable to users, and feasible for manufacturers to produce. We conducted formative usability research with participants who were naïve to HIVST using five prototypes in Kenya, Malawi, and South Africa. The tests selected ranged from early-stage prototypes to commercially ready products and had a diverse set of features. A total of 150 lay users were video-recorded conducting unsupervised self-testing and interviewed to understand their opinions of the test. Participants did not receive a test result, but interpreted standardized result panels. This study demonstrated that users will refer to the instructions included with the test, but these can be confusing or difficult to follow. Errors were common, with less than 25% of participants conducting all steps correctly and 47.3% of participants performing multiple errors, particularly in sample collection and transfer. Participants also had difficulty interpreting results. To overcome these issues, the ideal HIV self-test requires pictorial instructions that are easy to understand, simple sample collection with integrated test components, fewer steps, and results that are easy to interpret.
    Published: July 2014
    Type: Resource Page
  10. Callisto Sekeleza, formerly a communications officer at the UNC Project in Lilongwe, Malawi, tells his malaria story. Malawi is one of the three African countries that will pilot the first malaria vaccine, RTS,S.
    Published: April 2013
    Type: Article