Shigellosis and enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC)
Shigella and enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) are two of the leading bacterial causes of diarrhea worldwide, and, together, they account for about one billion cases of diarrhea annually. Insufficient data exist, but conservative estimates suggest that, combined, Shigella and ETEC are responsible for the deaths of approximately 300,000 children under the age of five each year. Shigellosis and illness from ETEC usually follow the ingestion of contaminated food or water. Shigella can also be transferred by person-to-person contact. ETEC can usually be treated through rehydration therapy, and both Shigella and ETEC can be treated with antibiotics, although the rate of resistance to the most commonly used antibiotics is sharply on the rise for Shigella. Currently, no licensed vaccines targeting Shigella or ETEC exist; however, vaccines against both bacteria are in development.
Progress and Hurdles in the Development of Vaccines Against Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli in Humans (2012)
An article that describes the status of vaccines under development to address ETEC.
Evaluation of Vaccines Against Enteric Infections: A Clinical and Public Health Research Agenda for Developing Countries (2011)
An article that provides a review of the enteric vaccines currently available and their lack of use in developing countries.
Featured PATH resources
More About Shigellosis and Enterotoxigenic Escherichia Coli (ETEC) (2012)
A web page that provides a link to PATH's work on shigellosis and ETEC, as well as general information about the diseases and the current vaccine landscapes.
New Vaccines to Address Bacterial Causes of Diarrhea (2011)
A fact sheet that describes PATH's enteric vaccine project from a technical perspective.
Page last updated: December 2012.