This issue of Outlook reviews the evidence base for microfinance approaches to improve and address women’s health. It begins with background on the microfinance sector and links between microfinance and health. Interventions and approaches focused on family planning, women’s health services utilization and access (including health financing mechanisms), and HIV prevention are discussed. The issue concludes with suggested operational considerations for integration and priorities for future research. Some positive experiences with microfinance and women’s health signify that this area merits increased attention, yet more evidence of impact is needed.