Vaccine Vial Monitor (VVM) Availability and Use in the African, Eastern Mediterranean, Southeast Asian, and Western Pacific Regions
This document reports on a study of vaccine vial monitor (VVM) availability and use in developing countries in four regions. The study included three aspects: the total proportion of vaccines with VVMs in the regions with detailed information by country; in-depth information on policies and practices; and knowledge and attitudes in a selected sample of countries. Results from the study show that, almost 15 years after their introduction, VVMs are still not being used as effectively as possible as a management tool in the areas studied. Therefore, the report also includes recommended actions that could support or enhance the availability and use of VVMs in the future.
Author(s): PATH, World Health Organization
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