Delivery technologies

Today, most vaccines are delivered via intramuscular or subcutaneous routes using a needle and syringe. In the future, novel delivery technologies may enhance the reliability and effectiveness of vaccines, while also improving the safety of delivery. Additionally, methods such as intradermal delivery hold promise for reducing the quantity of vaccine required for an effective dose—potentially helping to decrease costs for immunization programs.

PATH is working to improve vaccine delivery through the exploration and development of new delivery technologies. By collaborating with industry partners, manufacturers, and ministries of health, among other stakeholders, PATH strives to advance novel devices and methods that make vaccine delivery more reliable, more effective, and easier for developing countries. Visit PATH's website to learn more about its work in vaccine delivery technologies.

View resources on delivery technologies

Key resources

DNA Vaccine Delivery by Densely-Packed and Short Microprojection Arrays to Skin Protects Against Vaginal HSV-2 Challenge (2010)
An article about a study on the tolerability, immunogenicity, and efficacy of a vaccine using the Nanopatch™, a silicon microprojection device.

Optimal Intramuscular Needle-Penetration Depth (2008)
A article about the optimal needle length for intramuscular vaccination of children of various ages and sizes.

Featured PATH resources

Technologies for Oral Delivery of Vaccines (2012)
A fact sheet that describes PATH's approach to technologies for the oral delivery of vaccines and their potential applications for public health.

Landscape Analysis: Trends in Vaccine Availability and Novel Vaccine Delivery Technologies: 2008–2025 (2008)
A landscape analysis about the availability of vaccines and novel vaccine delivery technologies of relevance to low- and middle-income countries.

Page last updated: November 2013.