Subject: Vaccines and immunization > Miscellaneous
- Vaccine Stabilization
Part of the Technology Updates series, this fact sheet describes PATH's work on vaccine stabilization, including the development of a method to protect vaccines containing an aluminum adjuvant from freeze damage, the identification of a technology to improve the heat stability of certain vaccines, and the improvement of vaccine stability through reformulation involving glass-forming sugars plus other excipients and processing via spray drying.
Publication date: May 2012
Part of series: Technology Updates
- Diarrhoea Dialogues: From Policies to Progress
Diarrhoea Dialogues: From Policies to Progress reviews national policies and strategies to control diarrhea in three African countries: Ethiopia, Mali, and Zambia. The report provides recommendations based on research findings and calls for global and national decision-makers to take coordinated action to overcome challenges and address diarrhea by engaging in dialogue and working together to save lives.
Publication date: April 2012
- Vaccines in Fast-Dissolving Tablets: Novel Product Format to Ensure Vaccine Effectiveness, Affordability, and Ease of Use
This fact sheet provides an overview of PATH's work in developing fast-dissolving tablet vaccine formulations manufactured using a standard lyophilization process. The tablets are packaged in unit-dose blisters, offering an inexpensive, scalable, and easy-to-use presentation for live attenuated vaccines containing single or multiple bacterial strains. Further, the stackable design may minimize product volume and thus the space required for storage and transport, resulting in significant savings for health systems and cold chains.
Publication date: March 2012
- Cold Chain Equipment Manager (CCEM)
The Cold Chain Equipment Manager (CCEM) is a Microsoft Access–based software tool. It is accompanied by a user manual, data collection questionnaires, a surveyor’s guide to these questionnaires, and an equipment identification guide. CCEM also comes with practice files, providing new users with practice data to demonstrate how CCEM will analyze cold chain equipment data and facilitate multiyear equipment planning. CCEM version 2.1 is available for download (see below) or, to request a copy on CD, email CCEMinfo@path.org.
Publication date: January 2012
- Outsourcing the Vaccine Supply Chain and Logistics System to the Private Sector: The Western Cape Experience in South Africa
Facilitated by project Optimize, a World Health Organization and PATH collaboration, this review was conducted in the Western Cape of South Africa whereby the Biovac Institute (a third-party, private-sector company) took over the roles of vaccine procurement, warehouse management, inventory management, and vaccine distribution directly to health centers.
Author: Lydon P
Publication date: October 2011
- An Assessment of Vaccine Supply Chain and Logistics Systems in Thailand
Health Systems Research Institute, in partnership with project Optimize, a PATH and World Health Organization collaboration, commissioned a study led by the Faculty of Pharmacy, Mahidol University, to better understand the vaccine supply chain system in Thailand and the challenges of implementing a streamlined vendor-managed inventory system.
Publication date: September 2011
- Assessment of a Remote Alarm System for Vaccine Storage in Albania
Between March and December 2010 this project Optimize study assessed the marginal managerial advantages of using a global system for mobile communications/short message service messaging to transmit the temperature data in 24 health centers of the district of Shkodra, Albania.
Publication date: July 2011
- Developing a Vision for Immunization Supply Systems in 2020: Landscape Analysis Summaries
Facilitated by project Optimize and conducted by a multidisciplinary group of partners, these landscape analyses highlight ongoing work related to five priority areas that comprise the vision for immunization supply systems in 2020. The analyses also highlight critical gaps that need to be addressed to achieve the vision. The five priority areas are vaccine and related products, supply system design, environmental impact, information systems, and human resources. The document is available as one large file or as six smaller files for easier downloading.
Publication date: June 2011
- Understanding Influenza Vaccine Effectiveness in Senegal
This fact sheet describes a phase 4, post-licensure influenza vaccine effectiveness study that PATH and its partners are conducting in Senegal. The study seeks to better understand the extent of the influenza disease burden in tropical Africa, as well as the potential of current seasonal influenza vaccines to reduce influenza-related deaths in the developing world. Ultimately, study data could help public health officials decide how to best use influenza vaccines in Senegal and in similar tropical countries.
Publication date: May 2011
- Assessment of the Vaccine Supply Chain for Fee-Based Immunization in Hanoi Capital and Ho Chi Minh City
The objective of this project Optimize assessment was to understand the structure, scope, and quality of the vaccine supply chain for fee-based immunization services and to provide recommendations for strengthening management and monitoring the quality of the vaccine supply chain for fee-based immunization.
Publication date: April 2011
- Vaccine Vial Monitors: FAQs
Vaccine vial monitors (VVMs) are small stickers that adhere to vaccine vials and change color as the vaccine is exposed to heat, letting health workers know whether the vaccine can be safely used for immunization. This fact sheet answers the most frequently asked questions regarding VVMs.
Publication date: January 2011
- Collaborating With Countries to Improve Supply Chains
Project Optimize—a collaboration between the World Health Organization and PATH—aims to employ technological and scientific advances in the immunization field. This document describes efforts to define ideal specifications for health products and create a flexible and robust vaccine supply chain that can handle an increasingly large and costly portfolio of vaccines.
Publication date: November 2010
- An Integrated Approach to Health Information Systems in Guatemala
This project Optimize document describes an effort by the World Health Organization, PATH, the Pan American Health Organization, and the Guatemala Ministry of Public Health and Social Services to address challenges related to vaccine introduction. The goal is to develop an information system that will enable the digital recording and transmission of immunization data.
Publication date: November 2010
- A Review of the United States Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Vaccine Management Business Improvement Project
In this document, project Optimize reviews the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention’s (CDC’s) Vaccine Management Business Improvement Project, which represents an end-to-end reengineering of the US public-sector vaccine supply chain—from vaccine budgeting through storage and distribution. The CDC’s overarching goal was to ensure that vaccine was flowing to the right places at the right time.
Author: Wasserman N
Publication date: November 2010
- Vaccine Technologies at PATH
PATH and our partners have been advancing innovative vaccine technologies for more than 30 years. This report outlines our approach and capabilities. It also describes a number of individual vaccine technologies at various stages of development and market introduction to put this work in context.
Publication date: September 2010
- Vaccine Vial Monitor (VVM) Availability and Use in the African, Eastern Mediterranean, Southeast Asian, and Western Pacific Regions
Commissioned by project Optimize, a collaboration of PATH and the World Health Organization, a study of vaccine vial monitor (VVM) availability and use in developing countries in four regions was undertaken. The study had three aspects: the total proportion of vaccines with VVMs in the regions with detailed information by country, in-depth information on policies and practices, and knowledge and attitudes in a selected sample of countries.
Author: Milstein J
Publication date: August 2010
- Immunization Logistics and Supply Systems: From Vision to Action
In July 2010, project Optimize held workshops in Washington, DC, and Seattle, WA, to engage stakeholders from a wide variety of organizations. The workshops discussed developing-country immunization systems and sought participant perspectives on the desired future state of the systems. This document provides a summary of the workshops.
Publication date: July 2010
- Temperature Recording System in National Vaccine Stores of Khartoum, Sudan, and Tehran, Iran
Both Iran and Sudan utilize an alarm-based temperature recording system to monitor the performance of their national immunization cold stores. To better the utility and application of such systems in other countries, this project Optimize report documents the benefits, challenges, and advantages of both Iran’s and Sudan’s systems.
Author: Haghgou, M
Publication date: May 2010
- Improving the Affordability of Inactivated Poliovirus Vaccines (IPV) for Use in Low- and Middle-Income Countries: An Economic Analysis of Strategies to Reduce the Cost of Routine IPV Immunization
This report from the vaccine technologies team at PATH presents results from an economic model that calculates the costs involved in delivering IPV vaccine in Indian immunization clinics according to three strategies: (1) intradermal delivery of reduced volumes of vaccine per dose, (2) use of adjuvants to allow a reduced IPV antigen content per dose, and (3) reduction of the number of doses per IPV immunization schedule. The strategies include delivery by standard technique and with alternative delivery devices.
Author: Hickling J, Jones R, Nundi N, Zehrung D
Publication date: April 2010
- Optimize Phase I Summary Report: Evaluating the Vaccine Supply Chain in Preparation for Demonstrating Future Options in Vietnam
Project Optimize is collaborating with the Vietnamese National Institute of Hygiene and Epidemiology on a series of activities designed to assess the opportunities and needs for strengthening the immunization system in Vietnam. This document reports the results of assessments of the vaccine supply chain in Vietnam, completed in March 2010.
Publication date: March 2010