As part of PATH’s work in vaccine and pharmaceutical supply systems and equipment, this report summarizes experiments to develop a visual inspection method for determining whether water-packs are frozen, partially frozen, or unfrozen when removed from a freezer for use in vaccine carriers. The report also examines water-pack temperature and expansion during freezing.
Corporate author(s): PATH
Publication date: January 2016
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Related regions: Global
See also: Health technologies > Vaccine delivery
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Contact: PATH Publications
Mailing address: PATH, PO Box 900922, Seattle, WA 98109 USA