PATH receives a US$39.1 million grant from the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation to launch the Japanese encephalitis (JE) project with the goal of eliminating clinical JE and avoiding the unnecessary death and disability caused by the disease.


The World Health Organization’s (WHO) Global Advisory Committee on Vaccine Safety recommends that, although current use and policies should not be changed, the inactivated mouse brain–derived vaccine should be gradually replaced by new-generation JE vaccines. Awareness and demand for live SA-14-14-2 vaccine begin to grow.


PATH conducts clinical trials in multiple populations to address important questions of live SA-14-14-2 immunogenicity, safety, and lot consistency.


PATH enters into a 20-year collaboration with Chengdu Institute of Biological Products to facilitate the supply of SA-14-14-2 live JE vaccine at an affordable public-sector price. This negotiation enables developing countries to bring the vaccine to poor children who are at highest risk.

PATH provides technical input for the WHO position paper on JE, highlighting the disease burden and importance of vaccination. India then licenses the SA-14-14-2 live JE vaccine and begins widespread vaccination campaigns.


The SA-14-14-2 live JE vaccine is supplied to 11 countries outside of China for campaign and routine use. Vaccination campaigns reach more than 200 million people.


PATH helps support the construction of a new manufacturing facility to ensure an adequate, stable, and affordable vaccine supply of SA-14-14-2 live JE vaccine that meets international production standards.


Chengdu Institute of Biological Products submits the JE Product Master file for prequalification to WHO.


WHO’s Global Advisory Committee on Vaccine Safety reconvenes to reendorse JE vaccination and WHO prequalifies SA-14-14-2 live JE vaccine.

A GAVI Alliance working group is established to incorporate JE vaccination into the alliance’s portfolio.