Additional resources and supporting evidence

Publication references

  • Chow AY, Dickerson CR. Shoulder strength of females while sitting and standing as a function of hand location and force direction. Applied Ergonomics. 2009;40(3):303–308.
  • Clasen T, Naranjo J, Frauchiger D, et al. Laboratory assessment of a gravity-fed ultrafiltration water treatment device designed for use in low-income settings. American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene. 2009;80(5):819–823.
  • Roberts L, Chartier Y, Chartier O, et al. Keeping clean water clean in a Malawi refugee camp: a randomized intervention trial. Bulletin of the World Health Organization. 2001;79(4):280–287.
  • Frais S, Ng Y-L, Gulabivala K, et al. Some factors affecting the concentration of available chlorine in commercial sources of sodium hypochlorite. International Endodontic Journal. 2001;34(3):206–215.
  • Gipson K. Instability and Tip Over of Appliances, Furniture and Televisions: Estimated Injuries and Reported Fatalities. Bethesda, MD: US Consumer Product Safety Commission, Directorate for Epidemiology, Division of Hazard Analysis; 2008. Available at:
  • Rainwater Harvesting Technical Brief. WaterAid, unpublished data, 2010.
  • Lantagne D. Sodium hypochlorite dosage for household and emergency water treatment. Journal of American Water Works Association. 2008;100(8).
  • Davis J, Lambert R. Engineering in Emergencies: A Practical Guide for Relief Workers. Warwickshire, UK: RedR/ITDG Publishing; 2002. 2nd Ed.
  • Laurent P. Household Drinking Water Systems and their Impact on People with Weakened Immunity. MSF-Holland Public Health Department; 2005.
  • Indian Standard for Drinking Water per Bureau of Indian Standards (BIS) (IS 10500:1991).
  • The Sphere Project. The Sphere Project: Humanitarian Charter and Minimum Standards in Disaster Relief. Oxford, UK: Oxfam Publishing; 2004. Available at:,english/.
  • Published health impact studies by various academic professionals (e.g. Mark Sobsey, Joe Brown, Christine Stauber, Robert Quick, Tom Clasen, Danielle Lantagne, T.M. Joyce).
  • Rufener S, Mausezahl D, Mosler H-J, et al. Quality of drinking-water at source and point of consumption—drinking cup as a high potential recontamination risk: a field study in Bolivia. Journal of Health Population and Nutrition. 2010;(1):34–41.
  • Whelton AJ, Dietrich AM, Burlingame GA, et al. Minerals in drinking water: impacts on taste and importance to consumer health. Water Science & Technology. 2007;55(5):283–291.
  • Committee on Military Nutrition Research Food and Nutrition Board, Institute of Medicine US, Marriott B ed. Nutritional Needs in Hot Environments: Applications for Military Personnel in Field Operations. Washington, DC: National Academy Press; 1993.
  • Zellner DA, Stewart WF, Rozin P, et al. Effect of temperature and expectations on liking for beverages. Physiology & Behavior. 1998;44(1):61–68.

Standards and guidelines

PATH references

  • PATH. Extended User Testing of Household Water Treatment and Storage Products in Andhra Pradesh, India: Final Study Report. Seattle, WA: PATH: 2010. Available at:
  • Safe Water Project qualitative household research: household dimensions, furnishings and family size.
  • Reference Design Engineering Design Brief. PATH, unpublished data, 2010.
  • PATH HWTS Reference Design Brief and Technical Specifications. PATH, unpublished data, 2010.
  • Reference Design Beta Test Results. PATH, unpublished data, 2010.
  • PATH Reference Design Product Test Protocols. PATH, unpublished data, 2010.
  • Reference Design Engineering Brief. PATH, unpublished data, 2010.
  • PATH HWTS Tradeoff Matrix, HaloSource, unpublished data, 2009.
  • PATH. Formative Household Research Point-of-Use Household Water Treatment and Storage Products for Low- and Middle-Income Populations in Andhra Pradesh: Revised Final Report. Seattle, WA: PATH: 2009. Available at:
  • Reference Design Beta Prototype User Reviews. PATH, unpublished data, 2010.
  • Regional User Experience Research. PATH, unpublished data, 2010.
  • User Research: Willingness to Pay Studies. PATH, unpublished data, 2010.
  • Reference Design Beta Prototype User Evaluation. PATH, unpublished data, 2010.



  • Paints, colorants, inks, and glazes used for products have MSDS (material safety data sheets) indicating they are free from lead, cobalt, or other toxins.
  • Relevant national product quality standards.
  • Safe water system (SWS) publications—FAQ sheet page. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention website. Available at: Accessed April 1, 2011.
  • US FDA Title 21 CFR Parts 174–177.
  • Average warranty periods for equivalent household appliances (such as cookers, mixers, fans).
  • Average service life of equivalent household appliances.
  • Indian Standard for Drinking Water per Bureau of Indian Standards (BIS) (IS 10500–1991).
  • National standards organizations (e.g., Indian Standard for Drinking Water per Bureau of Indian Standards (BIS) (IS 10500:1991).
  • National regulatory bodies (e.g., India's Food Safety and Standards Authority).
  • Case studies on the misuse of the "ISI mark" (Indian Standards Institute) in India for packaged water.
  • Local regulatory standards.