Product format

  • Product format will be appropriate to typical home design and construction attributes (e.g., construction materials, presence of shelves, or furniture) in target markets.
  • Product format does not cause overly disruptive changes to existing user behaviors.
  • Format incorporates features (such as removable lids) that prevent contact or further contamination of untreated water, as well as provisions for the safe storage and dispensing of treated water.

Key indicators

  • Products employing a free-standing tabletop format are observed to offer the best combination of user accessibility, adequate head height, and minimal footprint. The freestanding tabletop format provides the greatest flexibility for placement in diverse use environments.
  • Many commercially available HWTS devices employ a freestanding tabletop format and will be most familiar to end users.  

Notes and exceptions

  • We recognize the advantages and disadvantages of alternative formats such as wall-hung devices or immersed siphon devices. While alternative formats may offer benefits such as reduced footprint or increased head height, there are corollary disadvantages that may limit their use in varied settings. For example, the construction of many low-income households makes it difficult to install a wall-hung device securely.

Supporting evidence

Tabletop HWTS device in a kitchen, with various food supplies on the floor nearby.

Typical households are short on space and often lack shelving. Photo: PATH.