• The mechanism for dispensing safe water enables use of the device by all household members.
  • Water is delivered fast enough to prevent users from bypassing treatment.
  • Users can easily start, stop, and modulate water flow.
  • Dispensing mechanism minimizes splashing and spillage.
  • Dispensing mechanism inhibits contamination from hands or other contaminated surfaces.

Key indicators

  • Minimum flow rate threshold value: 8 oz (250 ml) in less than six seconds.
  • Aeration or stream-break features can reduce splashing during dispensing.
  • Dual-state taps (continuous stream/intermittent auto shutoff) are valued by users and may reduce accidental spills.
  • Users value the ability to control flow rate (compared to on/off taps).
  • Taps or other dispensing mechanisms may not be reliable enough to meet the same durability criteria as the complete device.
  • Dispensing mechanisms are user serviceable or replaceable.
  • The dispensing mechanism is located where it can drain the safe water container as fully as possible.
  • Tap may incorporate bacteriostatic properties/surface treatments to reduce likelihood of bacterial growth inside the tap.

Notes and exceptions

  • The more rapidly water can be dispensed, the more likely it is to splash.
  • Leaking taps will create an undesirable wet area around the device, particularly on earthen floors.
  • Auto-stop features can minimize the risk of taps being inadvertently left in the open position but may make it more difficult to fill larger vessels with safe water.
  • Taps and outlets are primary locations for recontamination from hand contact and will benefit from particular design attention to minimize risk.
  • Tap can be replaced readily with a locally available tap in case of breakage or supply chain constraints (e.g., hole size is standard or common to region of sales).
  • For reference, a typical household tap in Seattle dispenses 250 ml in about two seconds.

Person presses water tap and dispenses water from water filter into cup.

All household members are able to use this tap. Photo: PATH.